Men's Health Month - All About Prostate Cancer

14th June 2019

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What is it?

The prostate is a small gland, normally about the size of a walnut. It sits just below the bladder and surrounds the upper part of the urethra – the tube that carries urine from the bladder and semen from the testicles to the outside of the body through the penis. Prostate cancer is the presence of cancer cells or a cancerous growth in or on the gland.

In many cases, prostate cancer is slow growing, and having it won’t affect you. But in some cases, the cancer is more aggressive and can spread to your bones, liver and lungs.

What are the signs and symptoms?

It is common for our prostate to become enlarged as we age. But, this can also be a sign of prostate cancer.

The prostate is located under our bladder. If it is enlarged it puts pressure on the bladder, which can cause the following:

  • Needing to pee more often, especially at night
  • Having difficulty starting or stopping flow
  • Dribbling or leaking when you urgently need to pee

Who gets it?

Prostate cancer is most common in men over 40. It is very rare in younger men.

Chances of developing it increase as you get older. By the age of 60, one in 14 men will have prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer can be hereditary. If your father or brother has prostate cancer, you have a higher chance of developing it.

Getting tested

If you’re over 40, and your brother or father has had prostate cancer, then we recommend you get tested every year.

If you don’t have a family history of prostate cancer, we recommend you get tested from age 50. If your test results are normal, then you only need to get tested once every two years.
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There are two initial tests for prostate cancer:

  1. Physical exam (finger test)
    Your doctor will put their finger up your bottom to feel the prostate for roughness, size, and unusual lumps. The medical name for this is a Digital Rectum Exam, or DRE.
  2. PSA blood test
    Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by your prostate. High levels in your blood might be caused by prostate cancer, but can be caused by other things as well. PSA levels can fluctuate, and some men have very low PSA levels, so the results aren’t clear cut.

It’s important to have BOTH tests, as neither test on it’s own can give an accurate indication of cancer.

If having your tests done on the same day, the PSA test should be done first. And you should wait a couple of days after ejaculating or cycling as these activities raise your PSA.

If you want to know what your PSA level is, then ask your doctor for the actual number. Here is a guide to PSA levels that are considered normal by age:

40s    Average 0.65    Upper limit 2.0
50s    Average 0.85    Upper limit 3.0
60s    Average 1.39    Upper limit 4.0
70s    Average 1.64    Upper limit 5.5

If the results of your tests show there are significant warning signs, your doctor will give you the option of having a biopsy, where a tissue sample of your prostate is taken. This will confirm if you have prostate cancer.

More recently, MRI scanning has also developed a role in the diagnosis of prostate cancer, and may be useful as well.

Treatment options

Depending on the size and stage of the cancer, you will be offered different treatment options. For some, the best option may be to monitor the cancer and not intervene if it isn’t having a negative impact on your health. For others, one or a combination of the following may be needed: medication, surgery, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy. Your doctor will help you choose the best treatment for you.


Strengthening your pelvic floor before (and continuing after) your surgery will improve your bladder control and your chances of being able to have erections after your surgery. Ask your doctor for a physiotherapist referral (specifically a pelvic health specialist if you can find one in your area) so that you can include a pelvic floor exercise prescription as part of your recovery plan.


Danny's Story

Danny had an early prostate check after cancer claimed his father's life. Danny was diagnosed with prostate cancer at 37, and early detection and treatment means his future is looking good.

Danny Bedingfield lives in Titahi Bay with his wife Sonja and their six year old daughter Ella. He enjoys spending time with his family and plays and records music in his home studio when he gets the chance.

Danny was diagnosed with Prostate Cancer the day before his 37th birthday. According to his specialist, Danny is one of the youngest he had ever treated for prostate cancer.

Seven months before that, his father Phil passed away after a five year battle with metastatic prostate cancer. Being aware that prostate cancer had the potential to be a family issue, Danny’s mother impressed on him the need for regular checks. Little did they know he already had the disease.

One month after his diagnosis, Danny underwent a robotic radical prostatectomy to remove the prostate gland. In traditional prostate cancer surgery, men are left with a large scar where an incision has been made in the abdomen. With robot assisted surgery, the surgery is done through a series of smaller incisions which can leave less scarring.

Danny recovered well from the surgery and only needed a catheter for a short time. His erectile function has now fully recovered. However, as is usual with prostate cancer treatment, he is now infertile.

Danny is 40 now. His regular PSA blood tests have come back with virtually no PSA levels so far. The future is looking good.

Since his encounter with the disease, Danny has made it his personal mission to increase awareness for younger men, and to get PSA blood tests and start regular appointments after the age of 40.

Danny had a very successful Movember campaign in 2013 when he came 3rd in the country for money raised. In 2015 he ran a Movember campaign to get his new company involved. He ended up being voted “MO” of the year for Thomson Reuters (Over 50,000 employees worldwide) and won extra cash for the team’s fundraising page.

A primary school teacher by profession, Danny was most recently an education consultant training teachers in the use of technology to enhance student learning. Specifically, Danny has an interest in learning differences and the way technology can assist those struggling to learn by traditional teaching methods.

Danny has been involved with the Prostate Cancer Foundation for several years. He is currently the Support Group Coordinator for Porirua and was recently elected to the Board of the Foundation. He enjoys attending events and getting the chance to share his story with men of all ages.

Thanks for sharing your story Danny.

LifeLot Members: Keep track of your health professionals and medical records. This information can save you from having to repeat routine medical tests as well as give your medical care providers more insight into your personal health story. This information could also prove invaluable for other family members as well. Make sure you have assigned your delegates!

In the My Medical section of your account you can keep a record of:man sitting against a wall

  • Your primary care doctor
  • Specialists and other health professionals
  • Your medical documents 
  • A list of your prescriptions and medications
  • Surgeries and procedures
  • Chronic or terminal illness information
  • Allergies
  • Health insurance
  • Your Advance Care Plan (ACP) 

Related: My Medical | Men's Health Month - All About Depression | Health and Medical Articles


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